Bel Geddes, Norman. Miracle in the Evening. Garden City, NY: Double Day and Co., Inc. 1960
Bergman, Gosta Mauri. Lighting in the Theatre. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. 1977
Fuchs, Theodore. Stage Lighting. New York: B. Blum. 1963 (1929)
Hartman, Louis. Theatre Lighting: A Manual of the Stage Switchboard. New York: DBS Publications. 1970 (1930)
Owen, Bobbi. Lighting Designers on Broadway: 1915-1990. New York: Greenwood Press. 1991.
Owens, Bobbi. Scene Designers on Broadway. New York: Greenwood Press. 1991.
Pendleton, Ralph. The Theatre of Robert Edmond Jones. Middletown, CT. Wesleyan University Press. 1958
On the Internet:
Kliegl Bros.Collector's Society
The Lighting Archive
Theatrical Lighting Database
General illumination provides a diffuse, shadow less, wash of light over the entire stage space.
The greatest drawbacks to the enjoyment of the theatrical performances are, undoubtedly, the foul air and heat which pervade all theatres. As everyone knows, each gas-burner consumes as much oxygen as many people, and causes great heat beside. The incandescent lamps consume no oxygen, and cause no perceptible heat.
Specific illumination, introduced by the lime light in the middle of the 19th century, provides a sharp, highly controlled shaft of light. These shafts were used to highlight a small area of the stage, a principle actor, or create the illusion of sunlight (or moonlight). These units were typically placed in the balconies of the auditorium or the galleries on the sides of the stage house. The 1903 electrical installation at New York's Metropolitan Opera included 14 lens boxes (spotlights), 12 powerful open faced carbon arc flood lights and 12- 12-lamp bunch lights (floodlights) in addition to the four color (white - amber - red - blue) foot lights, proscenium lights, and the eight sets of border lights.
5" 25 amp
5" 1000 watt spotlight
8" 1000 watt spotligiht 1936
In Die Musik und die Inszenierung (Music and Staging) (1899) he distinguished three kinds of stage light.
"The terrace in front of Tristan's castle is modeled in light and shadows as a dream vision, in dazzling sunlight when Tistan sinks into unconsciousness, in the blood-red light of sunset fading into twilight and, finally, into a hazy darkness around the lonely, white figure of Isolde." (Bergman. p327-328)
Appia suggests four different lighting looks or cues:
made it clear that the first row of overhead lamps should be in front of the proscenium instead of behind it. Overhead lamps located at a forty-five-degree angle in front of the curtain line produced modeling in facial features, and life to the eyes, which neither border nor footlights could achieve. They were equally favorable for the figures and clothing of the players and, owing to the concentrated beam, did not strike the scenery. (p.136)In 1916, at the age of 23, he left the Detroit advertising world to became the resident designer for Aline Barnsdall's short lived Little Theatre of Los Angeles. The company leased the 450 seat theatre at the Egan Dramatic School and Bel Geddes, with the aid of the company's electrician, built a dozen spotlights by installing new 1000 watt lamps in twelve old carbon arc lamp lens hoods. According to his autobiography...
I placed lights in the auditorium chandeliers, on the sides of the balcony rail, and put a whole line of them behind the proscenium. This was as they had been in my Detroit model. The system replaced the theater stage lighting equipment of low intensity flood lighting from foots, borders, and bunch lamps. The new method provided high intensity individual lamps, which could be focused on any area of the stage floor or scenery, in any color, with a variable amount of light due to individual dimmer control. All were operated from the stage switchboard by a single electrician. This installation, at the Little Theatre of Los Angeles in 1916, was the first use of focus lamps as the sole means of lighting the stage. Two years later I made the first installation in New York...Today [in the mid 50s] the system is in universal use. (p. 161)
Two years later in 1918 he (1) presented a successful lighting demonstration to Broadway producer Winthrop Ames, (2) was contracted to redesign the lighting system, using new 1000 watt spotlights, for both the Little Theatre (now the Helen Hayes) and the Booth Theatre on 45th Street, (3) lit, with 18- 1000 watt spotlights, a six show, summer stock season, at the Pabst Theatre in Milwaukee, (Sets designed by 31 year old Robert Edmond Jones), and (4) received his first New York design credit.
Today he is primarily remembered for his massive theatrical designs, especially those for Austrian director: Max Reinhardt (1873-1943). Like most designers of the period, he created both the scenic environment and the lighting design.
|Probably his most famous theatrical creation was the monumental 1921 design for Dante Alagherii's The Divine Comedy. The set for this unproduced project was 124' wide and 148' deep. The two massive side towers which framed the pit were each 59 feet tall. This imaginative theatrical concept exists today as a notated "script", sketches, a scaled ground plan and front elevation, and a number of photographs taken on an 8' by 8' model.|
In the fall of 1931, Bel Geddes designed and staged a three act, two hour fifteen minute melodramatic interpretation of Shakespeare's Hamlet. The production starring Raymond Massy ran for 28 performances at the Broadhurst Theatre. The thirteen scenes were presented on a single architectural set containing a flat neutral playing area, four large raised platforms, a series of steps, four huge towers, and a wrap-around cyc. There were ten hidden entrances into the acting space. Like other Bel Geddes designs, the set broke the proscenium line thrusting the action of the play twenty feet into the auditorium. Locations within the unit set were established through the choice of specific props and the careful focus of the beams of light.
Six years earlier in a French production of Jeanne D'Arc, on a very similar architectural set, Bel Geddes used only 3 sections of border lights, 24- 1000 watt 6 inch "focusing" spot lights, 3- 400 watt "baby" spots and 18- 1000 watt cyclorama floods. His autobiography, Miracle in the Evening was published in 1960, two years after his death (Garden City, NY: Double Day and Co., Inc). Link to Norman Bel Geddes' production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
The Banquet Scene - Act III, Scene iv
|Today he is primarily remembered for the staging of Eugene O'Neill's Desire Under the Elms (1924) and his vivid dramatic lighting for Arthur Hopkins' three Shakespearean productions: Richard III (1920) with John Barrymore, Macbeth (1921) with Lionel Barrymore, and Hamlet (1922) with John Barrymore. The expressionistic production of Macbeth was performed on a bare stage under the constant gaze of three gigantic, moveable, witches masks. The primary acting areas were isolated in carefully focused shafts of light.|
In addition to design, he wrote the unit on stage lighting in John Gassner's Producing the Play (1940). He used his lighting design for Nazimova's production of Ibsen's Ghosts (1935) at the Empire Theatre to illustrate typical practice in the mid-1930s. The layout, which he considered "necessary for general lighting of this type of production" included..
Building on his theatrical experience, Feder created a second career as an architectural lighting designer. Structures which carry the Lighting by Feder credit include New York's RCA/GE building in Rockefeller Center, the Empire State building and the United Nations building. When comparing his two professions as a theatrical and architectural lighting designer, he commented: "How can you get excited about a 50-foot stage after you've lit a 50 storey building?"
In 1993 Abe Feder was the first to be honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer. Abe Feder's papers are archived in the Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, New York City. Another significant archive of Feder's work is held by the Glesca Marshall Library and Archives, Springer Opera House, Columbus, Georgia.
Link to Abe Feder's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
After briefly studying acting and dance at New York's Neighborhood Playhouse and three years at Yale University she arrived in New York and became a technical assistant with the WPA Federal Theatre, Project 891. John Houseman was the producer, Orson Welles the director, Nat Carson the scene designer, and Abe Feder the lighting designer. When Houseman took a leave of absence in the fall of 1936 to stage Leslie Howard in Shakespeare's Hamlet at the Imperial Theatre, he brought Rosenthal along as the assistant stage manager in charge of lighting. When the man from the rental house, who was to install the electrical system became ill, Rosenthal suddenly became the "worker in light." I assume the lighting system she designed was similar to the layout created by Abe Feder for Welles' Elizabethan productions at the Federal Theatre. This was, perhaps, her earliest lighting credit.
Following the outlaw performance of The Cradle Will Rock, John Houseman was fired and Orson Welles resigned from the Federal Theatre. These two men joined forces and created the legendary Mercury Theatre. Jean Rosenthal became their production and lighting manager. Although credited as the "Production Manager," it is believed that she designed the lighting for the eight productions staged by the company.
Probably her most influencial work was with the Martha Graham Dance Company (1934-1969) and the New York City Ballet (1948-1957). Her imprint on the world of dance is huge. Echoing a comment by dance designer Thomas Skelton, "Jeannie Rosenthal invented dance lighting."
Rosenthal's paper work including light plot, hook-up chart and cue sheets for two works by Martha Graham: "Errand Into the Maze" (1947) and "Night Journey" (1948, revised 1960), Orson Welles' Julius Caesar (1937) at the Mercury Theatre, Joy to the World (1948) at the Plymouth Theatre and the national tour of West Side Story (1957) can be viewed online at The Lighting Archive (thelightingarchive.org).
During World War II she was co-designer of Broadway's Stage Door Canteen at 216 W. 44th Street (The cafe under the 44th Street Theatre), technical director of American Theatre Wing's Lunch Time Follies, a musical review which performed in the East coast defence plants, and developed "blue prints" for overseas USO camp shows.
In 1968 she was elected president of Local 829 of the United Scenic Artists. She was the first woman to hold this position. She also taught lighting design at both Smith College (1967-1969) and Yale University (1969-1970). One of her MFA students at Smith College, H. Lang Reynolds, was one of my mentors at Southern Illinois University in the mid 70s. Her papers have been donated to the Library of Congress in Washington DC.
Link to Peggy Clark's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
Among the many musicals she designed are two of the longest running Broadway shows: Michael Bennett's A Chorus Line (1975 to 1990), which introduced a computer controled lighting system to the Broadway theatre, and Gower Champion's 42nd Street (1980 to 1988). Her dramatic credits include Neil Simon's autobiographical trilogy: Brighton Beach Memoirs (1983), Beloxi Blues (1985), and Broadway Bound (1987). She has worked with the Jose Limon Dance Company, the American Ballet Theatre, and the Dallas and Miami Opera Companies.
In 1972 she won her first Tony Award for Michael Bennett's Follies which was followed by Tony's for Michael Bennett's A Chorus Line (1976) and his Dreamgirls (1982). In the mid-1990s she was diagnosed with "early-onset Alzheimer's" which made it more difficult for her to focus on the project at hand. Her last "new" Broadway credit was The Lonsome West which opened at the Lyceum Theatre in April 1999. She was honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer in 1996.
In 2006, her Tony award winning design for A Chorus Line was re-created by Natasha Katz for the "30th" anniversary revival at the Schoenfeld Theatre.
Virtual copies of the paper work (including light plot, hook up chart, magic sheet, focus charts, equipment list, follow spot cues, and tracking sheets for the 134 cues) for the original 1975 production of A Chorus Line is archived at the Theatrical Lighting Database. The database also includes virtual copies of the paper work for Fall River Legend (Tom Skelton, 1991), Hair (Jules Fisher, 1968) and Sunday in the Park with George (Richard Nelson, 1984).
She died peacefully in the company of her long-time partner and assistant, Marilyn Rennagel, on April 19, 2009.
Link to Tharon Musser's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
Skelton's approach to dance lighting, which is probably based on Rosenthal's, was published in Dance Magazine between October 1955 and October 1957. This series of 25 articles, collectively titled The Handbook of Dance Stagecraft, in the words of Richard Archer, a member of the StageCraft List, "showed us all how to light dance." Link to the Handbook... hosted by the University of Minnesota in Duluth. Tom Skelton was also on the faculty of the Lester Polakov Studio and Forum of Stage Design in New York and at Yale University in New Haven.
His first Broadway show was Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad which opened at the Morosco Theatre in the summer of 1963. His last show was Shakespeare for my Father, which closed in January 1994. Notable Broadway productions he designed include revivals of Death of a Salesman with George C. Scott (1975) and Dustin Hoffman (1984), Guys and Dolls (1976), The King and I (1977), Oklahoma! (1979), and Brigadoon (1980). He was nominated three times for a Tony Award, for Indians (1969), and for the revivals of All God's Chillun Got Wings (1975) and The Iceman Cometh (1985). He died in the summer of 1994 after a long battle with lung cancer.
His papers (ca. 1953-1994) are archived in the Jerome Robbins Dance Division of the New York Public Library (www.nypl.org). Link to the archive listing. Photocopies of selected documents from the New York archive are also located in The Jerome Lawrence & Robert E. Lee Theatre Research Institute at Ohio State University in Columbus.
Virtual copies of the paper work (including light plot, hook up chart, magic sheet, focus charts, equipment list, follow spot cues, and tracking sheets for the 134 cues) for the 1991 Revival of Fall River Legend at the Metropolitan Opera House are archived at the Theatrical Lighting Database.
Link to Tom Skelton's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
He designed the lighting for Kevin Kline’s "Great Performances" production of Hamlet (1990) for PBS, and has lit productions of Porgy and Bess and A Midsummer Night’s Dream for the New York City Opera company.
Bring in ‘da Funk (1996)
He was production supervisor (and lighting designer) for tours of the Rolling Stones (for which he won a 1976 IES Lumen Award), KISS, David Bowie, and the rock concert version of The Who's Tommy.
He has designed the lighting for the Radio City Music Hall presentation of The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, the 1977 Academy Awards Show, Quincy Jones' Reunion on the Mall concert for President Bill Clinton’s inaugural, America’s Millennium Live All-Star Concert New Year’s Eve 2000 and the concert segments of Barbra Streisand’s 1976 film: A Star is Born and the theatrical segments of Chicago: The Musical (2002), The Producers (2005) and Dreamgirls (2006).
In 1993 he began the Broadway Lighting Master Class, a four day seminar conducted by major New York lighting designers.
Virtual copies of his paper work (including light plot, hook-up chart, cue synopsis, cue sheets, follow spot cues, focus charts, equipment list,) for the 1968 production of Hair is archived at the Theatrical Lighting Database.
Link to Jules Fisher's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
After graduation she moved to New York to continue her studies in dance and began performing with the Merry-Go-Rounders, a touring company which performed primarily for children. She became the troupe's "rehearsal mistress" (touring director) which required her to watch the performance from the front. She began to look at the larger picture, and that larger picture was determined and controlled by the light. "I fell in love with light," she told Linda Winer in an October 2003 interview, "and have been in love with it ever since." The following summer she returned to the American Dance Festival and took a class in dance lighting from Thomas Skelton. She became his assistant, and as the stage manager, was soon recreating his designs on the road for the Paul Taylor Dance Company. Her first lighting design credit for Paul Taylor was Orbs (1966), a two-act dance set to the music of Beethoven. Her first Broadway lighting credit was for a production of Our Town at the ANTA Theatre (now the Virginia Theatre) in 1969.
It was her design for Jerome Robbins' Celebrations: The Art of the Pas de Deux (1973) at the Spoleto Festival (Italy), which brought her to the attention of the theatrical world. By the mid-1970s her work was regularly being seen on the off-Broadway stages of New York's Public Theatre, the home of Joseph Papp's New York Shakespeare Festival as well as the stages of numerous Broadway houses. By the 1980s she was regarded as one of dance's most versatile lighting designers. Her achievements range from the "forceful, sculpted effects" in Twyla Tharp's Fait Accompli (1983) to the "subtle, shimmering vision" for Jerome Robbins' In Memory Of... (1985). Her work in opera includes productions of Wagner's Parsifal at the Houston Grand Opera, Tannhauser for the Chicago Light Opera and Martin David Levy’s Mourning Becomes Electra at the Seattle Opera.
Tipton's lighting has won a Drama Desk Award for Ntosake Shange's For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide / When the Rainbow is Enuf (1976); a Joseph Jefferson Award for John Guare's The Landscape of the Body (1976); a Drama Desk and Tony Award for The Cherry Orchard (1977); a second Tony Award for Jerome Robbin's Broadway (1989) and an Obie for Sustained Excellence at the New York Shakespeare Festival (1979).
Beginning in 1981 Tipton has been a professor of design at the Yale School of Drama where she advises her graduate lighting students to "use what you have, ...use it well and imaginatively."
According to Chris Davis, the Associate Lighting Supervisor at Queens Theatre In The Park in Queens, New York-- "Jennifer Tipton is primarily a dance LD. She tends to work within a confined pallette, no color and a little color correction in either direction. Her work is all about angle, shape, and intensity, and she's a master at it."
Link to Jennifer Tipton's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
The Lortel Off-Broadway Archives list 45 Off-Broadway productions designed by Emmons between 1970 and 2005. Included are The Vagina Monologues (1996), The Elephant Man (1979), and Sam Shepard's True West (1980). For director Robert Wilson she has designed lighting for Phillip Glass' Einstein on the Beach (NYC, Metropolitan Opera House, 1976) and the CIVIL warS, Act V (Minneapolis, 1984). She has designed regional productions at Washington's Kennedy Center, the Ally Theatre (Houston), the Guthrie, the Arena Stage (Washington DC) and the Children’s Theatre of Minneapolis. She has taught at Barnard College, Parsons School of Design and New York University and has guest designed at numerous colleges and universities. She has designed lighting for the Trisha Brown, Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham dance companies.
She has had six Tony Award nominations, and won the 1976 IES Lumen Award, the 1984 and 1986 Bessie Awards (for "Sustained Achievement" in dance lighting), and a 1979-1980 Obie (Off-Broadway theatre award) for Distinguished Lighting Design. She has also won five Hewes Design Awards presented by the American Theater Wing.
In the late 1980s she became the lighting supervisor for the Martha Graham Dance Company. In this position she began recreating Jean Rosenthal's original lighting designs when the early works (1936-1969) of the Graham company were revived. During the past 20+ years she has strived to make these early design documents more easily available to student and scholars. In the fall of 2009 she created The Lighting Archive web site. The first documents to be posted were Rosenthal's design for Martha Graham's Errand into the Maze (1948). Emmons states "All the information to light Martha Graham’s Errand Into The Maze is contained in these 4 documents [light plot, hook-up chart, focus chart, cue sheet]. I know because I have reproduced these cues. They are just not in the formats we use today." In the spring of 2010 she added design documents for Graham's Night Journey (1948, revised 1960).
Link to Beverly Emmons's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
In 1997 he won the Tony for the Broadway revival of Bob Fosse's Chicago and was honored as a USITT Distinguished Lighting Designer in 1996. In March 2010, I attended a two day USITT "Broadway Lighting Designers Seminar" presented by Ken Billington and Natasha Katz, the lighting designer for Disney's Beauty and the Beast. Billington is presently an Adjunct Professor of Drama at Carnegie-Mellon University.
The paper work, including light plots, for the Broadway, London, National Tour, and Bus-and-Truck productions of Sweeny Todd (1979) are archived at TheLightingArchive.org (Go to TheLightingArchive.Org > Archive > Billington > Sweeny Todd) The light plot and hook-up chart for Sweeny Todd were also published on pages 159-160 of Leland Watson's Lighting Design Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1990).
Link to Ken Billington's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com).
After graduating from the University of Wisconsin in 1920, Mac received a Master of Arts degree in architecture from Harvard University (1923). He worked several years as an architect before becoming a lighting consultant in the late 1920s. He used an ellipsoidal reflector in the house light fixtures he designed for the Center Theatre in New York's Radio City (1932). These units were the prototype for the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight he created for Ed Kook and Chuck Levy's Century Lighting-- The Leko.
In 1925, he and George Pierce Baker (1866-1935), who he had met at Harvard, created Yale University's School of Drama. The following year, 1926, he offered the first academic class in Stage Lighting. During his 39 year tenure at Yale he would teach some of America's most important lighting designers including both Jean Rosenthal and Tharon Musser. A Glossary of Stage Lighting was published in 1926, this was followed by A Syllabus of Stage Lighting, first published in 1927, and A Method of Lighting the Stage (1932). McCandless' method is still the basic foundation of modern stage lighting.
He retired from teaching in 1964 and died three years later at the age of 70. His professional papers are archived at Yale University.
His most significant work, Stage Lighting, was published by Little Brown and Company in 1929, making it one of the earliest theatrical lighting texts. Ten years later in 1939, Samuel French published Home-Built Lighting Equipment for the Small Stage, an expansion of Chapter Seven from his 1929 work. In the early 1950s he self published, through Northwestern University, several "books" on suggested layouts of stage lighting equipment for the school and college auditorium.
One of his major contributions as a consultant, especially in educational theatres in the midwest, was the Plaster Cyc -- replacing the traditional Sky Drop with a permanent, off-white, sand-blasted plastered rear wall.
He was presented the USITT Award for his "lifetime contribution to the performing arts community" at the 1980 Kansas City Conference. His professional papers have been archived in the Theodore Fuchs Collection on Theatre Technology in the Lee Library on campus of Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah.
Much of his design work was created for the theatre of opera and dance-- companies like the Metropolitan Opera, the New York City Opera (for which he designed 36 productions and was appointed production supervisor in 1981), the Lyric Opera of Chicago, the Martha Graham Dance Company, the Alvin Ailey Dance Company and the New York City Ballet. In September 1971 Hemsley was production manager and lighting designer for Leonard Bernstein's MASS: A Theatre Piece for Singers, Players, and Dancers, a work commissioned by Jacqueline Kennedy for the opening of the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. He was the lighting designer/production manager of the US tour of the Performing Art's Company of the People's Republic of China in 1978 and the gala inaugural celebrations of Presidents Nixon and Carter. He was nominated for two Drama Desk awards: for Porgy and Bess (1977) and The Mighty Gents (1978).
Hemsley's paperwork including light plot, section, shop order, hook-up chart, magic sheet and tracking sheets for the Houston Grand Opera's production of Porgy and Bess at the Houston Music Hall (1976) and on Broadway at the Uris (now Gershwin) Theatre (1976) is archived on-line at The Lighting Archive.
In 1970 he joined the theatre design faculty of the University of Wisconsin where he soon became one of the most popular and respected professors on campus. He continued to design, often using his students, known as "Gilbert's kids," as assistants, giving many of them their first experience in the real world of the theatre. Shortly after his death in 1983, the Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr Internship in Lighting with the New York City Ballet, the New York City Opera, and the Lincoln Center Festival was established. The selected student spends nine months, June to February, working with these three Lincoln Center based companies. Probably his major legacy is the love, passion and professionalism he instilled into his students, many of whom work in the Minneapolis area. His papers, both designs and teaching documents, are archived at the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theatre Research on the Madison campus of the University of Wisconsin.
Link to Gilbert V. Hemsley, Jr' s production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com)
In 1971 he joined the theatre faculty of New York University, a position he held until his retirement 26 years later in 1997. "Teaching...made me a better designer," he told Theatre Crafts International, "I always allow my students to ask any questions they want about my work, and so I have to be prepared to answer....When I began to teach, I also started to think about what I liked about lighting....The fact that I don't hold a nine-to-five job, that's pretty terrific. Sometimes I get asked by my students ‘Why do you still do it?’ And I'll laugh and say, ‘Well, think about it: where else can you get paid by someone to spend their money to fulfill your fantasies?’"
Lloyd Burlingame, Chair Emeritus of the Department of Design at NYU said "It was our great good fortune that he came to join us and worked his magic as a master teacher of lighting for a quarter of a century...Like the great lighting artists of our time, he understood all facets of what went into making the stew of a play, dance, or opera. His critiques on scenery and costumes were often deeply penetrating. He always insisted on his students understanding the heart of a play or opera. His light labs were famous for demonstrating the importance of lighting cues in relationship to music. If I were forced to choose one aspect of his art that made him unique in his generation, it would be his sense of color. He never put a foot wrong in his imaginative color choices."
Costume designer Carrie Robbins spoke about their collaboration on a Broadway show which had a short run or a week or two-- "I had an idea of creating a tintype / old-photo kind of look for a flashback sequence. I used a range of sepia stuff, of course, and hoped it wouldn't be too bland or too obvious. John worked his usual color magic, which I had come to count on, and the scene came alive, chirascuro'd in rich tones of gold to deep shadowy umber. I asked him what in the world did that. 'It's just the right color of gel,' he said. 'What do they call it?' I asked. 'Chocolate, of course.' Now there's an apt name. I still to this day don't know if he was kidding me or if there really is a chocolate gel." (Yes, there is a chocolate gel. It was Brigham 70 and is Roscolux 99 or Lee 156.)
Link to John Gleason's production credits listed in the Internet Broadway Database (www.ibdb.com)