Melodic Structure Theory Things   William Wieland
Ostinato a pattern (often melodic) repeated throughout a composition (Ostinato is Italian for obstinate.)
        bass line of Peter Gunn theme song
        Debussy's Les Cloches begins with a bass ostinato which moves to an inner voice and is later altered
Sequence a melodic pattern (often 1 bar) repeated immediately at a different pitch (often a step)
        Diatonic Sequence or Tonal Sequence "Glo-" of "Gloria" in Angels We Have Heard on High (in one key)
        Modulating Sequence or Real Sequence Beethoven Waldstein Sonata opening 8 bars (exact transposition)
        Modified Sequence Petzold Menuet (Note the composer's alterations.)
Motive (or motif) a musical word (melodic, rhythmic or harmonic) Motivic Transformation
        the opening four notes of Beethoven's 5th Symphony
Phrase a musical sentence (often 4 bars long) with an ending, a sense of closure
        Every phrase in Deck the Halls ends with Fa la la...
Period 2 balanced, complementary phrases Antecedent & Consequent   ( Question & Answer )
 Antecedent phrase first (Think poker ante.)
        ends inconclusively, often on 2 or 5 in the melody and a dominant triad in the harmony (a musical comma)
        Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", bars 14
Consequent phrase follows (Think consequences.)
        ends conclusively, often on 1 in the melody and a tonic triad in the harmony (a musical period)
        Beethoven's "Ode to Joy", bars 58
 Parallel Period the antecedent and consequent are similar "Home on the Range", first half
Contrasting Period the two phrases contrast "Home on the Range", last half
 Double Period a melodic structure of 4 phrases, often a b a b'
        the 1st and 3rd phrases end weakly, the last phrase ends the most strongly
        the opening of Beethoven's Bagatelle Op. 119, No. 1 or Beethoven's Piano Sonata Op. 26