[Partly edited, 1/31/2014]
have looked so far at two very
successful civilizations that came
out of the Ancient Near East, Egypt and Mesopotamia. We are now
going to look at another people from the Ancient Near East, Ancient
Israel (the Hebrews).
The Israelites would at first seem an
insignificant people. they
left no great works of art and architecture. They made no great
contributions to math or science. They never established a great
empire. Still, the Israelites had a major impact on Western
civilization. In addition, the history of
Ancient Israel (the Hebrews) is an excellent
example of the importance of physical security, ethical guidance, and
emotional fulfillment to the success of a civilization, lessons often
remembered by subsequent peoples. In many ways, the people of
Ancient Israel taught the world new ways to dream.
The dream began with a man named Abraham.
According to the story in Genesis, Abraham initially lived in
Mesopotmia. He was closely associated with the Amorites who had
begun to dominate Mesopotamia about this time (c. 1900 BC).
Abraham left Mesopotamia, settled for a time in what is today Syria,
and then moved in to the "promised" land. According to the
Genesis story, Abraham made a covenant with God: he would leave behind
the worship of other gods, and, in return, he and his decendents would
acquire the land from between the "river of Egypt" to the
Euphrates. In addition, Abraham was promised that in his seed
"all nations of the earth would be blessed." In other words, the
entire world was going to be changed for the better through Abraham and
Right from the beginning, then, the Hebrews seem to have had a special
sense of emotional fulfillment. They had the idea that, somehow,
they were God's chosen people. The Romans also had something of
this attitude and, in both cases, this view that the nation/people had
a divine destiny to fulfill proved particularly helpful in getting
through rough times.
And it is interesting how much impact Abraham and his immediate family
have had on subsequent history. The stories of Abraham and his
family have been told again and again and again, and they are much more
familiar to the average person than (say) the stories of the families
of Sargon, of Raamses, or Hammurabi. Jews, Christians, and
Moslems all look back to Abraham as the father of their faith, so for
half the world's people Abraham remains an important figure while
figures who, at the time, were much greater in power and influence
have, for the most part, been forgotten.
Many of you are familiar with the stories of Abraham, his wife Sarah,
their son Isaac, Isaac's wife Rebecca, the two sons of Isaac, Jacob and
Esau, and some of you might even be able to name all 12 sons of
Jacob! It's very unlikely that any of you would be able to do
anything similar with the families of, say, Ahmose or Thutmose.
According to the Biblical story, one of the sons of Jacob, Joseph, is
sold into slavery in Egypt. Joseph, though, rises from slavery
until he becomes 2nd in command to Pharaoh. Unfortunately, there
are no contemporary Egyptian records that would give us any extra light
on this story. It seems possible, certainly, that Joseph and
(eventually) the rest of his family settle in Egypt during the time of
the Hyksos, perhaps around 1700 BC. The Hyksos, "shepherd kings,"
would have been very similar in culture to the Hebrews, and it does
seem somewhat more likely that an outsider like Joseph would have the
opportunity to advance during the Hyksos period than during a time when
native Egyptians were in control.
Eventually, though, the situation changes. The Bible says that
there arose a pharaoh who "knew not Joseph." This may mean the
return of native Egyptian rulers who didn't recognize any of the
agreements made by the pharaohs of the Hyksos period. In any
case, the Hebrews somehow undergo a reversal of fortune and end up as
slaves, perhaps during the reign of Ahmose around 1570 BC.
Eventually, the Hebrews get a leader to deliver them from slavery:
According to the Biblical story, the Egyptians launched a program of
infanticide to keep the number of male slaves at a minimum. Moses
was abandoned to the river, but rescued by Pharaoh's daughter who
adopted him as her son. Interestingly, the name Moses is in some
ways appropriate to a member of the royal family. Moses (Moshe in
Hebrew) means "out of." Egyptian Pharaohs of the time had this
"moshe/mose" word as part of their names. Raamses = Ra Mose, out
(or son of) the Egyptian god Ra. Thutmose = Toth Mose, out of (or
son of) the Egyptian god Toth. Moses has only the "out of" part
of the name, and it's interesting to speculate why that might be.
In any case, around 1300 BC or so, Moses, after a series of adventures
(!), led the Israelites out of slavery in what is called the Exodus (a
Greek name once again = the road out). Moses gave them some
important sources of ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment.
Moses gives them perhaps the finest law coded to come out of the
Ancient Near East. He also sets up the worship in the Tabernacle,
uniting the people and giving them the sense that they are worshipping
the one true god. In general, the rest of the story is a story of
ups and downs: up when the people of Israel follow Moses' laws and
worship only the god of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, down when they start
worshipping other gods and departing from the law.
Moses successor Joshua, for instance, challenges his people to serve
God only ("Choose you this day whom ye will serve...as for me and my
house, we will serve the Lord). They agree, and, while Joshua
leads them, they appear to be on the road to success, crossing over the
Jordan and conqurering much of the Promised Land.
After Joshua's death, though, the people of Israel begin intermarrying
with the Canaanites and adopting Canaanite religious practices
including temple prostitution and child sacrifice. This breaks
down both ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment, and it's not
surprising that during this eara (the time of the Judges, roughtly
1250-1020 BC), the Israelites suffer setback after setback,
conqured and oppressed by Amalekites, Midianites, and, ultimately, the
Philistines. There are some bright spots under judges like
Gideon, Deborah, and Samson, but the writer of the book of Judges talks
about this period as a time of breakdown: "there was no king in those
days and every man did that which was right in his own eyes."
Under Samuel, the last of the judges, things begin to shape up once
again. Eventually, Samuel, somewhat reluctantly, annoints a king
for the Israelites--first Saul, and then David. This is the
beginning of the United Monarchy, a period when the 12 tribes of Israel
are united under Saul, David, and David's son Solomon (1020-922 BC).
Under David and Solomon particularly, things seem to go well.
David is a great fighting king, and, by the end of his reign, Israel
controlled most of the Promised Land. Solomon takes the kingdom
left by his father and makes it more splendid. He constructs a
huge temple in Jerusalem, and this becomes the focus of Hebrew worship,
replacing the old tabernacle. Solomon chooses diplomacy over
warfare, and, during his reign, Israel becomes much wealthier than it
had been before.
But Solomon, for all his wisdom, made some bad mistakes. His
basic policy: make marriages, not war. He married women from
leading families throughout Israel, trying to unite the nation with
these family connections. He also married women from surrounding
nations, some nations subject to Israel at the time (Ammon, Edom, Moab)
and some allied to Israel (Egypt). Solomon ended up with 700
wives and 300 concubines, secondary wives. But for Solomon's
strategy to work, he has to keep these women happy. It does no
good to be married to Pharaoh's daughter if she is unhappy. So
how does one man keep 1000 women happy? Well, you buy them
things. Solomon builds a temple for Pharaoh's daughter. And
then, of course, he has to build temples for all his other foreign
wives. And the wives want something more: they want Solomon to
worship with them. And he does. This wrecks the main source
of Israelite emotional fulfillment. When they king himself starts
turning to other gods, the unity created by the exclusive worship of
the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is broken.
Also, all this building is expensive. Solomon has to raise taxes
to sky-high levels, and he has to resort to forced labor to get all his
building projects done. This makes the people unhappy, and,
after Solomon's death, the northern ten tribes break away and form the
separate nation, Israel. Judah remains loyal to the house of
David, and so there are now two nations: Israel and Judah. From
this point onward, there's not much hope of political greatness.
The two nations are frequently at war with one another, and they have
much more difficulty when wars with neighboring countries arise.
Eventually, Israel is defeated by the Assyrians (722 BC). The
Assyrians deport the people and bring in others. This is when the
northern ten tribes become the "lost" tribes of Israel.-
Judah survives the Assyrian assault, but, aroung 600 BC, the Chaldaens
(Neo-Babylonians, or, in the Bible, just Babylonians) conquer them and,
after putting down several revolts, decide to destroy Jerusalem and the
temple and take the leading citizens captive into Babylon itself.
This could (and perhaps should) have been the end. But during the
Babylonian captivity, at least some of the Jews seemed to have learned
the lesson. They gave up the worship of other gods, and began
focusing intently on the study of the scriptures. In 536 BC, when
the Persians conquereed the Chaldaeans, they began going back to
Judea. They rebuilt Jerusalem and the temple and, for a time
under Persian rule, things seemed to be on the right track.
But around 330 BC the Greeks under Alexander conquered the Persians and
took over Judea. Alexander's successors, trying to imitate
Alexander himself, wanted to create great empires and to consolidate
their empires. Some of them worked hard to try to get the Jews to
assimilate, to become just like the other peoples of the
empire. This would have meant giving up the law of Moses
and the worship of one god only.
Many Jews were tempted: Greek culture had much to offer. But one
of the successors of Alexander's general Seleucus, Antiochus Epiphanes,
went too far, too fast. He wanted to be worshipped as if he were
the god Zeus. He set up an image of himself in the temple,
sacrificed a pig on the altar, and forbid things like
circumcision. This provoked a revolt, a revolt led by the
Maccabees (c. 160 BC). For 100 years, Judea was independent, but
around 60 BC, the Romans expanded into the eastern Mediterranean,
taking over Judea. The Romans tried various experiments in trying
to govern the Jews, none of them very successful. Ultimately, in
66 AD, the Jews began another revolt. This culminated in another
destruction of Jerusalem and a destruction of the rebuilt temple.
More than a million Jews were killed.
This marks the beginning of the Great Diaspora, the great dispersion of
the Jewish people. In 135 AD, the Jews staged yet another
revolt. This time, the Romans decided to keep them from going
anywhere near Jerusalem. Jerusalem was rebuilt as a Roman city
(Aelia Capitolina), and the remaining Jewish population of Judea was
scattered in various places.
And this should have been the end. Like the Hittites, the
Mitanni, and so many other ancient peoples, the Jews should simply have
disappeared from history. But they didn't. Why?
Because, although much had gone wrong, the Jews had perhaps the
greatest source of ethical guidance and emotional fulfillment any
people have ever had. A book: what the Jews call the Tanak, and
Christians call the Old Testament. Held together by this book,
the Jews survived as a people for nearly 1900 years of the
dispersion. And then, in an event unique to history, in 1948 the
Jews went back to their Promised Land and re-established a nation, the
nation we today call Israel. Such a thing could only be
possible for a people truly convinced that there was something special
about them, something worth sacrificing for and preserving. Once
again, I think, an example of how much giving people a sense of
emotional fulfillment might aid in the preservation of a society.