SOUTH DAKOTA NATIVE AMERICANS
Th 6:00—8:50 p.m.
"I'm Ancient History"
A study of the history and cultural dynamics of the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota peoples of South Dakota. Special emphasis will be given to past and present educational policies and practices relevant to American Indian Education. 3 credits.
The knowledge base for students in all teacher education programs at Northern State University is organized around the following categories: 1) knowledge of self as a individual, 2) knowledge of content, 3) knowledge of the learner, 4) knowledge of pedagogy, and 5) knowledge of self as a teacher and member of a learner community.
AREAS OF THE KNOWLEDGE BASE ADDRESSED IN THIS COURSE:
INED 411 addresses all five aspects of the knowledge base with special emphasis on knowledge of content and knowledge of the learner.
1. Students will be able to summarize the strengths of Pre-Columbian
2. Students will be able to summarize the ways in which art, music, and literature help one understand Lakota-Dakota-Nakota culture.
3. Students will be able to summarize the tragic events accompanying Native American encounters with Europeans.
4. Students will be able to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of various U.S. government policies toward Native Americans.
5. Students will be able to summarize both positive and negative aspects of Native American assimilation to the dominant culture and both positive and negative aspects of the preservation of Native culture.
6. Students will be able to teach units involving Lakota culture and incorporate elements of Lakota culture when teaching other subjects.
7. Students will be able to translate and use some Lakota words.
The schedule below is tentative. Additional readings may be assigned, and topics may be addressed in a different order than they are listed below.
Northern State University recognizes its responsibility for creating an institutional climate in which students with disabilities can thrive. If you have any type of disability for which you require special accommodations, please contact Karen Gerety at the NSU Office of Disability Services (626-2371, Student Center 217) as soon as possible to discuss your particular needs
Black Hills, White Justice (Edward Lazarus)
Myths and Legends of the Sioux (Marie McGlaughlin) or Lakota Myth (James R. Walker)
Land of the Spotted Eagle (Luther Standing Bear)
How to Take Part in Lakota Ceremonies (William Stoltzman)
Speaking of Indians (Ella Deloria)
SCHEDULE OF CLASSES AND READINGS:
9/2 What Are We Doing Here? That is the Question
Thu Pre-Columbian Sioux Culture
9/9 (Deloria, pp. 1-74/ Standing Bear (39-191)
Thu. Lakota Art and Music (Guest: Clayton Crawford)
9/16 (Stolzman, pp. 1-54)
Thu Lakota Legends
9/23 (McGlaughlin or Walker: any eight myths)
Thu The Traditional Lakota Family/ Traditional Religion
(Guest: Morgan Lewis)
9/30 (Standing Bear, pp. 83-119; pp. 192-225)
Thu The Trail of Tears
10/7 (Lazarus, pp. 1-118)
Thu. Christianity and Spirituality (Guest: Jerome Renville)
10/14 (Deloria, pp. 49-105)
Thu *** MIDTERM EXAM ***
10/21 (Be sure to bring a blue book)
Thu Shifting Govt. Policy/Paha Sapa
10/28 (Lazarus, pp. 119-149)
Thu The BIA and Tribal Government (Guest: Hank Bowker)
11/4 (Lazarus, pp. 183-216)
Thu *** Veteran’s Day ***
11/11 (No Class)
Thu Cultural Distances: Contemporary Problems Facing Native Americans
11/18 (Economics, Education, and a Solution to all of South Dakota’s Problems—if available online)
Thu *** Thanksgiving ***
11/25 (No Class)
Thu Lakota Student Panel/Lakota Language
12/2 (Deloria, pp. 107-108)
Thu To Melt or Not to Melt? Assimilation vs. Cultural Preservation
12/9 (Standing Bear, pp. 226-259)
Thu. *** Final Exam ***
12/16 (Please remember to bring a blue book and your journal)
Your grade for this course will be based primarily on a midterm exam, a final exam, and a South Dakota Indian journal, each of which will count approximately 25% when your final grade is determined. The remaining 25% of your grade will be based on attendance and participation.
Midterm and Final Exams: 8 ID'S, 1 essay
ID'S will be selected from the terms put on the board at the beginning of each class. You will be asked not only to identify the terms, but also to explain their significance in South Dakota Native American history and culture. Students should try to show how the ID terms relate to important themes discussed in this class and in the readings.
Essay questions will deal with major themes discussed in the lectures. Most often, the exam question will be a generalization made in class with the additional word, "comment."
A student who studies hard and does the required reading should have plenty to say in response to each of these questions. You will be given two hours for both the midterm and final exams. Most students will need the full time to do a good job.
What is a good job? I tell students over and over again that a good essay consists of a series of good generalizations based on the exam question and backed up with specific support from the lectures and the readings. I am particularly impressed when students include in their essays references to primary source material.
Your journal is to be a record of your thoughts and reactions, not a summary of class notes. Record your reactions to each of the assigned readings in the journal. We will from time to time ask for other kinds of reflections in the journal, so bring the journal to class each day. In evaluating the journal, we will have in mind the following questions:
1. Does the journal reflect a thoughtful reading of the assigned course materials?
2. Does the journal reflect a growing understanding of South Dakota Native American culture?
3. Does the journal contain ideas on how to incorporate various aspects of Lakota culture into classroom teaching?
1. What is your background in Native American history and culture? What did you study in high school and in other NSU classes? What have you studied on your own?
2. What do you particularly hope to learn from this class?
3. Take a look over the list of guest speakers for this course. What are some good questions the class might ask of each particular speaker/presenter? For all of those weeks when guests are scheduled, please include in your journal questions you anticipate asking.
Pre-Columbian Sioux Culture
Please skim pp. 1-74 of Ella Deloria'sSpeaking of Indians and pp. 39-191 of Luther Standing Bear's Land of the Spotted Eagle. Read more carefully the sections that will help you answer the following questions.
1. In what ways did ideas on kinship help provide physical security to the Lakota? Ethical guidance? Emotional fulfillment? What seems particularly attractive/valuable in Lakota ideas of kinship? Why is a knowledge of kinship terms helpful in understanding Lakota culture?
2. What is the significinance of the Tipi to Lakota life? The Tiospaye?
3. What guidance did Lakota culture offer to men and women as to what was particularLy appropriate/inappropriate to their sex? Why these standards? (Note especially pp. 148-154 of the Standing Bear book.) Does Deloria offer any special insights into what life was like for a Lakota woman? Does Standing Bear offer special insights into life for a Lakota man?
4. What role did religion play in terms of physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment for the Lakota? Are there any contrasts between Deloria and Standing Bear in their views of Lakota religion?
5. What was traditional Lakota education like? What are the advantages/disadvantages of education done in this way?
6. What was economic life like among the Lakota, i.e., how did the Dakota try to make sure resources were used in the wisest way possible?
Lakota Legends (McGlauglin or Walker)
1. Which legends did you read? Of these, which did you particularly enjoy? Why?
2. What are the values reflected in these legends? What guidance is there here for family life, etc.?
3. As with most folklore, Lakota stories contain some rather dark elements. Why do you think this is? What do these dark elements suggest about Lakota hopes and fears?
4. How would you incorporate these stories into your classes? Can you think of any particularly creative way of presenting the stories? Be prepared to present one of these stories to the rest of this class.
Doug Neuharth, the minority coordinator for the Aberdeen schools, loves to have Northern Students as volunteer tutors for his Native American students. I will be very generous in granting extra credit to those students who will work with Doug. Each session begins with a meal (yes, they will feed you!) at 5:30. Tutoring runs between 6:00—7:00 p.m. The sessions are held at 504 South Washington St. To volunteer, call Doug at 725-8116 or contact me for more information. Tutoring dates are the following:
Sept 13, 22; October 4, 18; November 1, 15, 29; Dec 6
MIDTERM—PRELIMINARY STUDY GUIDE
PRE-COLUMBIAN, TIPI, SUN DANCE, COUNTING COUP, LAKOTA OYATE, SEVEN COUNCIL FIRES, TIYOSPAYE, GIVE AWAY, WAKAN, WAKANTANKA, CASKE, WINONA, ATE, INA, TUNKASINA, UNCI, TAKOJA, CANKU DUTA, SKAN, TATE, THUNDERBIRD, SEVEN SACRED RITES, SWEAT LODGE, VISION QUEST
IKTOMI, WHITE BUFFALO WOMAN, TATE, THE STONE BOY, HAMWI, WOHPE, SKAN, DOUBLE-FACE, ELLA DELORIA, WAKAN TANKA, UNKTEHI, JAMES WALKER, SKAN, TATE, THUNDERBIRD, WACIPI, RABBIT DANCE
CHEROKEE, TRAIL OF TEARS, OJIBWAY, TREATY OF 1851, TREATY OF 1868, ASH HOLLOW, MINNESOTA UPRISING, SAND CREEK, GEORGE ARMSTRONG CUSTER, RED CLOUD, CRAZY HORSE, SITTING BULL, LITTLE BIG HORN (BATTLE OF GREASY GRASS), WOUNDED KNEE, WOVOKA, GHOST DANCE
A. According to Henry Parkes, a successful society must provide physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment to its members. For the most part, pre-Columbian Sioux society did an excellent job providing these three things. Ella Deloria is quite right in describing the Dakota as having “a scheme of life that worked.” Comment.
B. One of the best ways to understand any society is to look at the art, music, and literature it produces. This is especially true of the Lakota. Comment.
C. As was often the case when Native Americans encountered Europeans, the Sioux encounter with whites was to a certain a "trail of tears." However, along with some tragic defeats, there were some moments of glory as well. Comment.
FINAL EXAM--STUDY GUIDE
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE, CHEROKEE, TRAIL OF TEARS, DAWS SEVERALTY ACT, ALLOTMENT, INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT (WHEELER-HOWARD ACT), RELOCATION, TRIBAL COUNCIL, INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION ACT, B.I.A., MITAKUYE OYASIN
PAHA SAPA, HE SAPA, WIND CAVE, CRAZY HORSE, BEAR BUTTE, HARNEY PEAK, SWEET MEDICINE, DEVIL'S TOWER
ASSIMILATION, CULTURE, GIVE AWAY, SWEAT LODGE, MULTICULTURALISM,
E PLURIBUS UNUM, CARLISLE INDIAN SCHOOL, CRAZY HORSE, VISION QUEST, JUS GENTIUM
(In preparing for essay question four, you can include many of the Lakota words you learned during the class, explaining why an understanding of these words helps you better understand Lakota culture. Potential exam ID's will be indicated later this week.)
(In preparing for essay question five, you may use any of the ID terms associated with Lakota history, religion, music, art, politics, family, language, and literature. Potential exam ID's will be indicated later.)
1. U.S. government policy toward Native Americans has never been very consistent, and even the best-intended of policies have tended to backfire. Further, Native Americans themselves disagree sharply both in regard to government policy and in regard to the best long-term direction for native peoples. Comment.
2. It is not surprising that the Sioux won't relinquish their claim to the Black Hills despite the compensation that has been offered. Comment.
3. For many Sioux young people, assimilation to the dominant culture may be the best route to success and happiness. For many others, an affirmation of traditional Native culture is essential. A good teacher will try to make it possible for a student to take either path. A great teacher will enable the student to combine the best of both options. Comment.
4. Language is the single most important aspect of culture, and the preservation of Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota is key to cultural preservation as well. Comment.
5. While it is sometimes beneficial for a teacher to plan
complete units on one aspect or another of Lakota culture, it is frequently
best to integrate Lakota material when teaching other subjects.