[November 21, 2016 revision. I decided *not* to include a separate question on Christianity in the Roman empire.  I've modified question 2 just a bit, and some of the Christianity material fits here.  Please note that, because there are only four study questions,  the exam format will be a little different than I usually use.  In Part I of the exam, I will gave you 12 ID's to choose from and ask you to identify and explain the significance of eight (8) of those 12 terms.  For Part II of the exam, I will assign give you one (1) of the prompts, and ask you to write a good essay responding to that prompt.  The ID choices will be from the three groups *not* associated with that essay.]


REVISED FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

POTENTIAL ID'S

YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS, (GALBA), (OTHO), (VITELLIUS), VESPASIAN, (TITUS), DOMITIAN, (NERVA), TRAJAN, HADRIAN, (ANTONINUS PIUS), MARCUS AURELIUS

COMMODUS, SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, PARTHIANS, CARACALLA, JULIA MAMEA, PHILIP THE ARAB, DECIUS, VALERIAN, SASSANIDS, GOTHS

DIOCLETIAN, GALERIUS, EDICT OF TOLERATION, CONSTANTINE, EDICT OF MILAN, CONSTANTINOPLE, ARIANS, NICAEA

CONSTANTIUS, JULIAN THE APOSTATE, THEODOSIUS, ATTILA, NESTORIANS, MONOPHYSITES, ZENO, ALARIC, STILICHO, (JEROME), (ST. AUGUSTINE), JUSTINIAN

POTENTIAL ESSAYS:

A.  During the year following Nero's death, it began to look like the governmental arrangement made by Augustus was going to be no more effective than republican government had been.  However, the events of the next 111 years (69 A.D.-180 A.D.) showed that the principate could be an effective form of government--if only a way could be found to ensure that the right type of man became emperor. Comment.

B.  The century following the death of Marcus Aurelius (AD 180-284)was a time of nearly constant crisis.  The problems facing the empire during this period were far too great for even the most competent of emperors to solve, especially the problems created by the fickle (yet essential) Roman army. And it certainly didn’t help matters that the emperors couldn’t quite figure out what to do with Christianity. Comment

C.  In some ways, Diocletian earned for himself the title he claimed, “restorer of the world.” However, the real turning point in Roman (and world) history was the reign of Constantine. Comment.

D.  The Roman emperors of the 4th, 5th, and 6th centuries (AD 337-564) were probably right in seeing unity as essential to the success and perhaps even the survival of Rome.  Ironically, however, their attempts to create unity often created as many problems as they solved.  Comment.