Philosophes-18th century

I. Diderot
A. knowledge exists to solve problems

1. not spread around widely enough

B. 1st important French encyclopedia

1. medicine

a. diseases and treatments

b. surgery

c. provided second opinion for patients

2. technology

a. textiles

b. mining

c. printing

3. science

a. every branch

b. new idea of chemistry

4. sports

a. fencing (save lives)

II. Condorcet

A. Progress of the Human Mind

1. education

a. social iniquity (peasants and nobles)

b. male/female inequality

c. economic inequality

d. no more war (unjust, cruel, unfair)

e. imperialism wrong

f. medical care increase

g. become good people

i. delight in virtue

ii. forget greed

iii. live in Elysium (paradise)

2. underestimates the difficulty of all this

III. Rousseau

A. believed in ideal political and social system by organization

B. not a very nice person

C. Confessions (autobiographical)

1. intelligent, good looking

2. thought world owed him a living

a. no hard work

3. music copyist

4. gigolo

a. made a good living

5. dishonest

a. thief and liar

6. Paris

a. 5 children with Theresa

b. abandons them

7. parties

a. purchases prostitutes

b. degrading

D. answer?

1. Judgment Day

a. good and bad compared

b. let everyone else say what they have done

2. advocates changing of society, not heart

E. The Social Contract

1. just and good society

2. create a society given ďmen as they are and laws as they might beĒ

3. look at man in state of nature (Hobbes and Locke)

a. govít formed=social contract

i. natural rights vs. civil liberties

ii. Rousseau believes in civil liberties

4. natural rights

a. no one has the right to rule anyone else

b. govít job to protect property

c. only lose life when you violate someone elseís right to life

d. capital punishment

e. tolerance

i. religion

ii. fair market

5. civil liberties (Rousseau)

a. govít has duty to get rid of differences (equality of all)

b. acceptable to take $ and property to make others equal

c. govít can take away life

i. advocates abortion

a. man and women can both walk away

d. societyís fault, not the personís

i. reform people, no executions

e. tolerate all religions that are tolerant

i. canít interfere with state

ii. religions teaching only way to salvation should not

be tolerated

6. believes no society is doing what it should

a. how to get from bad to good

b. General Will (what we want to be true)

i. always right

ii. express General Will

a. democratic decision

iii. courts, not a majority

c. change govít often

d. every 500 years a good society forms

7. result=society is so miserable/anything is justified

IV. Philosophes had problem with Christianity

A. developed Deism

1. a creator

2. rituals irrational

3. didnít like clergy

4. didnít like miracles

5. devil irrational

V. Leibnitz

A. Optimism

B. mathematician

C. world constructed of monads that work together

1. one big monad-God

2. God chose for us the best of all worlds

a. world with a little evil and a lot of good

3. not possible to have a world with no evil

a. free will is necessary

VI. Voltaire

A. historian, playwright, writer

B. laughter

1. win with laughter, even if lost

2. makes fun of everything

C. get rid of class differences

D. free will-always choosing between evils

E. envisions a better world-El Dorado

F. answer to the problem of evil

1. cultivate your own garden

2. natural law not clear

3. doesnít explain evil

a. believes God needs evil

VII. Kant

A. German philosopher

B. poor

C. very rigid routine

D. Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics and Critique of Pure Reason

1. Reason alone can prove nothing

2. categorical imperative

a. how behave in situations

b. show us our duty

c. do unto othersÖ

i. human minds shows us

3. reason shows us what our duty is and shows us what we can do

a. makes us happy-when we do our duty

b. will be happy