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The 19th century: The Age of Progress
I. Conservative Ideas
 A. Congress of Vienna (1814,1815)
  1. Members of Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria
  2. Get rid of Napoleonís rulers
  3. Wanted peace in Europe
  4. Prince Clemens von Metternich of Austria (one member)
   a. Principle of balance of power
    i. many strong nations
    ii. no dominance
   b. Conert of Europe
    i. countries work together
    ii. meetings to resolve crises
   c. Return to traditional authority
    i. old dynasties (Hapsburgs, Romanovs)
 B. Alexander I, Tsar of Russia
  1. Russia had strong army
   a. could have dominated Europe
  2. Religious conversion experience
   a. Holy Alliance with Prussia and Austria
    i. act by Christian principles
 C. Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia
  1. Stopped war for 40 years
  2. No successful revolution
II. Liberal ideas
 A. More like todayís conservative ideas
 B. Liberty=freedom (less government)
  1. Representative government
  2. Personal freedom
  3. Economic freedom
   a. Laissez-faire
    i. less government interference
    ii. lower taxes
    iii. low or no tariffs
    iv. government out of economy
 C. Nationalism
  1. Common language
   a. break apart empires into smaller sections
  2. Common background together
 D. Revolutions in 1800s
  1. Tried to establish nations and representative government
  2. Failed
  3. Congress of Vienna
III. Nationalism and Nation Building
 A. Russia as the policeman of Europe
  1. Crimean War (1854-1856)
   a. Concerned with Ottoman Empire (Turkish Muslims)
    i. Sultan was having difficulties
    ii. Russia concerned about fellow Orthodox Christians
   b. Russia moves troops to Black Sea
    i. protect Christians
   c. British and French alarmed
    i. balance of power
    ii. need to have war to prevent war
   d. Russia loses to Britain and France
    i. no big loss
    ii. change in Russian attitude
   e. Russia expected help from Austria-Hungary
 B. Greek nation formed- 1820s
 C. France
  1. Revolution in 1830
   a. replaced Charles X with Louis Phillipe
   b. representative government
  2. Economy down in 1840s
   a. People unified against Louis
   b. Louis Napoleon-President of France
    2nd Republic
    i. good ruler-many reforms
    ii. more power
    iii. new constitution in 1852
    iv. France established as Empire
     1. Napoleon III-Emperor
      return France to power
    v. no violence
     (That IS Progress)
 D. Italy
  1. Unification
   a. Camillo de Cavour (Prime Minister of Sardinia)
    King Victor Emanuel
   b. Drive Hapsburgs out of Italy
   c. Help England and France
    (help each other)
   d. France taking out Hapsburgs violates Congress of Vienna
   e. Local rebellions
   f. French Bourbons defeated by Guiseppe Garibaldi
    i. does not become king
    ii. works with Cavour
    iii. united Northerna and Southern Italy
    iv. Papal states unified in 1870
    v. voting for legislature begun
 E. Germany
  1. Otto von Bismarck
   a. Chancellor of Prussia
   b. makes conservative decisions by force
  2. Franco-Prussian War (1870
   a. France helps little German states
   b. Prussia wants France out of the way
   c. France wants Prussia
   d. Prussia
    i. better artillery
    ii. get to paris
    iii. takes only Alsace-Lorraine
   e. German states happy with Prussia
    i. Kaiser Wilhelm I
     1. Germany powerful
     2. economy up
     3. science and technology up
     4. wages and diet increase
   d. Not what liberals wanted
    i. no representation
 G. Britain
  1. Liberal dream
   a. Representation and freedom
   b. good economy
   c. largest empire
  2. Problems
   a. little industrial growth
   b. no benefits for workers
   c. factory system yucky
   d. illegitimacy a problem
  3. Solution: Liberal laissez-faire
   a. get rid of taxes, tariffs, etc.
    i. economy increased
    ii. everyone became richer
    iii. social problems declined
   b. religious revival
    i. Sunday school
    ii. Salvation Army
   c. Queen Victoria
    i. greatest good for greatest number of people
    ii. exemplary personal life