Age of Reason

--end of 17th c.=end of chaos
--18th c.=Enlightenment/Age of Reason
---but not a very enlightened age

I. France

A. Louis XIV (1643-1715)
1. absolute monarchy
2. reduces chances of civil war
3. strong economy
4. strong military
5. kept nobles in check
6. revoked Edict of Nantes
7. wanted to extend Bourbon dynasty to Spain
a. zealousness results in War of Spanish Succession
i. long and bloody war
ii. cost France money and men
iii. drained French treasury
iv. wasting funds
b. Bourbon dynasty WAS extended
B. Louis XV (1715-1775)
1. 5 years old
2. nobles under control
3. still an absolute monarchy
4. never outgrew adolescent traits (women and himself)
a. not thinking about country
b. stability to instability
5. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
a. loses French Canada
6. knew country was heading for destruction
7. acquired smallpox from prostitute and died
C. Louis XVI
1. good ruler but weak and indecisive
2. by this time absolute monarchy not working

Enlightened Despots
I. Frederick William I (King of Prussia 1713-1740)
A. imitates Louis XIV
B. beauracracy
C. used bourgeoisie and merchants
D. East and West Prussia existed
1. vulnerable location
E. used army sparingly
F. one negative attribute
1. treatment of son Frederick the Great
a. wasn’t the military type like his father
b. liked poetry, flute, etc.
c. ran away age 16
d. brought back
e. charged with desertion because of military commission
II. Frederick the Great (King of Prussia)
A. rose above circumstances of mistreatment by father
B. sponsored arts and culture increased
C. no bribery allowed
D. realized torture does not work
E. religiously tolerant
F. trained army very well
1. negative-used army too much
a. took Silesia from Austria
2. provoked coalition against him
a. almost lost Prussia in 7 Year’s War
G. negative-didn’t help peasants
1. most were workers and weren’t aided by Frederick’s improvements
III. Maria Theresa (Austria 1740-1780)
A. Habsburg, capital at Vienna
B. 16 children
1. used them to make good marriages
C. good diplomat
D. promoted good ethics in country
E. sponsored arts (Haydn, Mozart, etc.)
F. properly prepared a successor
1. Joseph II (her son)
IV. Joseph II (Austria 1780-1790)
A. Co-ruled with Maria Theresa for 15 years (preparation)
B. Does enlightened things
1. education system
2. liberates serfs and gives land
3. increases trading
4. advocates free trade
5. religiously tolerant
6. made 17,000 laws—touched all lives
C. negative-people fought him
1. unfortunate luck for Joseph
V. Peter the Great (Russia 1689-1725)
A. co-ruler before 1689
B. looks at the increase of Europe and wants to be where they are
C. solution is to Westernize Russia
1. look
a. new clothing style
b. shave off beards
2. thought
a. reformed schools
b. 1st secular schools (training for other than the church)
c. simplify alphabet
d. first printing
3. technology
a. took people on tours to W. Europe
b. manufacture of ships
i. 1st merchant marine (good fleet)
1. helps trade
ii. navy
1. trains 28,000 men
2. builds 800+ ships
4. organization
a. impressed w/ gov’t efficiency in W. Europe
b. sets up 50 administrative districts
c. builds capital-St. Petersburg
i. got rid of old Moscow
d. ability to govern determined position, not royal blood
e. built harbors, canals, roads
D. negatives
1. cruelty
a. size (7 feet tall and strong)
b. vicious temper
i. son ran away
1. put him in prison
2. ordered him beaten and killed
c. unsure of plots
 i. killed 1000 palace guards
 ii. put bodies on display
d. sent wife to convent-never speaks to her again
    e. many workers for St. Petersburg
     i. died by 100,000s
     ii. brought in new workers
   2. changes too rapid
    a. hard on people
    b. impatient
     i. wanted to catch up to Europe
     ii. inhumane acts
   3. taxes
    a. raised taxes 500%
   4. war
    a. 13 months of peace
    b. taxes increased to pay for war
    c. many killed
   5. no successor
    a. dies while naming successor
  E. Russia declines
VI. Catherine the Great (Russia 1762-)
 A. German princess
 B. married Peter III (heir of Russian throne)
 C. Peter only married her for an heir, not interested
 D. Peter III
  1. bad ruler
   a. Russia fighting 7 Year’s War
i. fighting against Frederick-almost had Prussia               beaten
ii. admired Frederick-called off war
   b. made himself hated
    i. pushed aside by Orloff
 E. Peter killed, Catherine takes over
 F. good and enlightened ruler
  1. reforms
   a. theater
   b. some free education
   c. some free medical services
   d. built many cities (trade increased)
   e. made treaties
   f. many military victories
   g. many good edicts for country and people
   h. new governments created
   i. total of all she made=492
 G. negatives
  1. 492 “good things she has done”
   a. not sure she is a good person
   b. after husband killed, she had 21 lovers
  2. affects public life
  3. inability to face reality
  4. everything was terrible, she didn’t want to know
  5. could not accept criticism
   a. closed newspapers
  6. successor—Paul (her son)
   a. undid things from his mother
   b. he died young-saved Catherine’s achievements