[Revised 3/18/15, 3/1/16, and 3/24/17)   The terms in parentheses will not be ID choices on Spring 2016 exam. You might find it useful to include a discussion of some of them should you end up writing on the related essay question.] 


MIDTERM II--STUDY GUIDE

POTENTIAL ID'S:

SPARTA, ATHENS, (PERSIAN WAR), (PELOPONNESIAN WAR), ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ACROPOLIS, OLYMPIC GAMES, HOMER, (SAPPHO), HERODOTUS, (THUCYDIDES), EUCLID, ARCHIMEDES, SOPHOCLES, ANTIGONE, (EURIPIDES), (TROJAN WOMEN)

THALES, (DEMOCRITUS), (HERACLITUS), (PARMENDIDES), SOCRATES, PLATO, ARISTOTLE, DIOGENES, STOICISM, EPICUREANISM

VIRTUS, (FASCES), STRUGGLE OF ORDERS, PUNIC WARS, (DELENDA EST CARTHAGO), GRACCHI BROTHERS, MARIUS, SULLA, (CATILINE), (CICERO), (1ST TRIUMVIRATE), JULIUS CAESAR

AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS, CALIGULA, CLAUDIUS, NERO

PAGANISM, ZEUS,  PLINY, GALERIUS, CONSTANTINE, GOSPEL, SERMON ON THE MOUNT, PRODIGAL SON, (GOSPEL OF JOHN), (PETER), AGAPE

POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS:

A.  The Greeks made more important contributions to subsequent civilization than any other ancient people.  Particularly important, the Greeks taught the world new ways to dream.  Comment.

[Note that the online notes section has three different links to lecture material related to this essay.  Remember that part of your job here is to pick out the information that best helps you address the prompt.  There are many different ways of approaching this material.  You do not have to address the "Greek dream" material, but you can if you like.  Perhaps the easiest (though not necessarily the best) way to address this material is to give me good paragraphs on Greek contributions to the visual arts, sports, history, political science, math, science, poetry and theater. Talking about the play you read for class (Sophocles' Antigone might be a good way of illustrating the influence of the Greeks on subsequent civilization.]

B.  Philosophy is probably the most important contribution of the Greeks to subsequent civilization.  Comment.

[Note that, as on other questions, you are free to bring in material you've learned about Greek philosophers in classes other than this one.  if you have taken Dr. Blanchard's philosophy class, feel free to talk about what you learned about Greek philosophy in that class as well. Dr. Wachs also talks about aspects of Aristotelian philosophy in his classes, and you can include some of what you've learned from him too.  Perhaps the easiest (though not necessarily the best) way of approaching this material is to give me a paragraph or two on each of the philosophers mentioned above, in each case showing why their work does or does not show the importance of Greek philosophy.  Talking about the dialogue you read for class (The Apology) might be a good way to talk about the importance of both Socrates and Plato.]

C.  The growth of Rome from a small city-state into a great empire during the Republican period is somewhat surprising.  Even more surprising is Rome's continued success during the period of the Roman Revolution.  Comment.

[Note that this essay asks you to address both the period in which Rome, little by little, extends its dominance of the Mediterranean  world (509-133 BC) and the period of the Roman Revolution (133-31 BC), a period in which, though Rome faces extraordinary problems, it manages to survive and even grow.  This essay includes the material from several lectures.  It is *very* important that you do some thinking.  What best shows the surprising nature of Rome's rise?  What  best shows why Roman success was no accident?  What is surprising about Rome's success during the Roman Revolution?  In what ways is Roman success not so surprising?  For each of the two periods covered in this essay, you can choose a different thesis.  If you feel the evidence overwhelmingly supports the idea that Roman success is not so surprising, you can focus on Roman strengths.  If you find that it is surprising, you can focus on the obstacles Rome faces.] 

D.  Augustus' success in rebuilding Rome is somewhat surprising.  Even more surprising is Rome's continued success during the period of his Julio-Claudian successors.  Comment.

[This is the easiest material to prepare.  Just know the basic stories of the emperors listed in group four above and be able to evaluate each.  To what extent is Roman success under that emperor surprising?  To what extent is it not so surprising?]

E.  One of the greatest surprises in history is the eclipse of Roman paganism and the triumph of Christianity.  Comment.

[Once again, you'll have to do some thinking about what evidence best supports whatever answer you give.  In what ways do you think it surprising that Paganism (the old Roman religion) disappears?  It what ways is it not so surprising that the Roman people were willing to consider changing their religious belifefs?  In what ways is it surprising that Christianity survived, let alone became the dominant religion of Rome?  What did Christianity have to offer that makes it perhaps not so surprising that Christianity replaced paganism?  Talking about the gospel selections you read for class (and your impressions of Jesus himself) might be a good addition to your essay.]