[Revised 4/20/2016 and 4/29/16 and 4/12/2017]

FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

Terms in parentheses are terms I do not plan on including as potential ID terms, but you might want to discuss these figures should you be assigned the related essay.   

Please be sure to bring a *new* blue book (no torn pages, no writing of any kind) and a pen to the final exam.  You will have two full hours to write, so I expect your essays written out in full, not outlined.  Remember that no notes or electronic devices of any kind are allowed. 

Please do not forget to comment on the *significance* of the ID terms.  On the essay, remember that good topic sentences are important.

PLEASE NOTE:

All three of my sections will take the exam on Tuesday, May 2, from 4:30-6:30 p.m. in JFAC 117 (what used to be the Red Room).   

PLEASE ALSO NOTE:

The Late Middle Ages (1300-1500), the Rensaissance (1350-1600), and the Reformation (1517-1648) overlap, and historians aren't all that consistent in the way they associate different figures with the different periods.  I often separate the late Middle Ages from the Renaissance, but I am going to see what happens this semester by treating the two as simply different sides of the same period.  For the Spring 2016 final, I combed the Renaissance question with the 14th century disasters question.  This created a bit less confusion, so I'll do the same for the Spring 2017 final.

Note also that Erasmus (1466-1536) and More (1478-1535) are often considered late Renaissance writers, but I put them in my lecture on 16th century reformers--where they also belong.  For reasons that I hope will be apparent to you, I  talk about Reformation figures first, and then come back to Erasmus and More.

POTENTIAL ID'S:
 
CONSTANTINE, CONSTANTINOPLE, JUSTINIAN, (THEODORA), BASIL THE BULGAR SLAYER, CHRISTOLOGICAL CONTROVERSIES, ICONOCLASM
 
MUHAMMAD, (KHADIJAH), MECCA, (MEDINA), QUR'AN [KORAN], (FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM), SHAHADA, (MOSQUE), HAJ, RAMADAN, JIHAD
 
GREGORY THE GREAT, BENEDICTINES, CHARLEMAGNE, FEUDALISM, CRUSADES, SONG OF ROLAND, LANCELOT, ROMANESQUE, GOTHIC, ANSELM, ABELARD, AQUINAS, ST. FRANCIS, (MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD)
 
BLACK DEATH, HUNDRED YEARS' WAR, JACQUERIE, AVIGNON PAPACY [BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY OF THE PAPACY], GREAT PAPAL SCHISM,
WYCLIF, HUSS, SAVANAROLA, BOCCACCIO, PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, MACHIAVELLI, BOTTICELLI, (DA VINCI), RAPHAEL, (MICHELANGELO)
 
LUTHER, ZWINGLI, CALVIN,
ANGLICANS, ANABAPTISTS, JESUITS, COUNCIL OF TRENT,  ANABAPTISTS, (BRETHREN OF THE COMMON LIFE), ERASMUS, MORE
 
POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS:
 
A.  Christianity gave the Roman Empire a new lease on life.  Particularly in the east, the Christianized Roman Empire, what we usually call the Byzantine Empire, remained successful for centuries.  However, the Byzantine Empire was not quite as Christian as it might have been, nor was Christianity always as helpful as it might have been.  Comment.
 
B.  Muhammad would at first seem an insignificant historical figure, but he turned the Arabs into a force to be reckoned with and created one of the most compelling and attractive of all religions, Islam.  Comment.
 
C. European society in the Early and High Middle Ages did an excellent job providing physical security, ethical guidance, and emotional fulfillment for its members.  Comment.
 
D.  In the 14th century and the early years of the 15th century, a series of calamities shook the medieval world to its foundations.  But just as Western European civilization seemed ready to collapse, it went through a period of rebirth--what we call the Renaissance.  Art and literature in particularl were "born again" in this period. Comment.
 
E.  In 16th century Europe, reformers of various types tried to correct the many abuses they saw in their society, trying especially to reform the church.  Unfortunately, their attempts at reform sometimes only increased the turmoil of this century. The events of the Reformation period have important lessons for anyone who wants change society—suggesting that there is a right way and a wrong way to work for societal change.  Comment.