Bibliography 77
References 87
Alexander, Carol; Sheedy elizabeth; and Koenig, David R., 2004, The Professional Risk Manager's Handbook , PRMIA 87
Lateral marketing as defined by Kotler and Trias de Bes (2003); “…is a work process which, when applied to existing products or services, produces innovative new products and services that covers needs, uses, situations, or targets not currently covered and, therefore, is a process that offers a high chance of creating new categories or markets.” 88
The gas stations have been redeveloped within the perspective of lateral marketing and have become the owners of a more multi-functional retailer identity instead of being plain retail channel members providing fuel. This situation led to some changes and developments in terms of consumers’ gas station preferences which revealed a movement of differentiation on products and services offered by those stations. 88
The aim of this study is to understand lateral marketing applications’ effects on both the consumer and the retailer. In this study, a model which was developed to determine the factors that affect the car drivers’ preferences of gas station brands has been investigated. The research has been conducted through face-to face survey technique on 384 car drivers in Istanbul. The results displayed statistically significant relations between the respondents’ demographic characteristics and gas station preferences regarding consumer choice. 88
Competition in the gasoline sector, fluctuation of the oil prices and ongoing standardized marketing mix created the need for “differentiation” and “redevelopment” for gas stations to accommodate the consumers economical and socio-cultural evolution. 88
Gas stations who adopt the lateral marketing perspective diversify the products and services from gross gas to consumers through the station market in 24 hours principle. On the other hand, consumers prefer some kind of differentiation in gas products like that of lateral marketing offers. 88
This study aims to understand lateral marketing applications’ effects in gas stations both from the consumers’ and the stations’ perspectives. For that purpose, face-to-face surveys were conducted on 384 car drivers in Istanbul. Questionnaire form was designed from current literature and through in-depth interviews. Results point out some statistically significant relations between demographic characteristics and gas station preferences regarding consumer choice. 88
As a result of the fluctuation in oil prices; the competition in the sector, in order to allocate the financial risk and to get re-organized for the modern customer, differentiation has become vital for gas stations. According to Bonoma(1994); “….gasoline retailing can be described as the failure of differentiation, in that brand preference is notoriously difficult to develop something that has all the differentiating possibilities of the ice business.” At that point, lateral marketing view can offer some solutions, for the “ice businesses”. 89
As Steth et.al.(1999) stated that “acquiring a product or service requires time and effort. The effort includes the distance the customer has to travel to acquire the products, the hours of operation during which the customer may conduct the exchange transaction, the ease with which the customer can locate the merchandise, and the ease with which the customer can acquire title to (i.e., ownership of) the product or service and consummate the exchange. Convenience value refers to savings in the time and effort needed to acquire the product.” 90
References 97
Abstract 98
Introduction 98
Methodology 100
Research Design 100
Conclusion 103
References 104
Historical Perspective 115
Introduction 129
A way to create value? 130
Activities 130
Fair trade brand 130
Relationship in a fair trade market 130
Mission in a market 132
Organizational value 134
Potential sources of limits in the relationship 134
Irritants 134
Job description 134
Defective policies 135
How partners can work against these limits 135
Common marketing strategies 136
Reinforcement of the standards and contracts 136
Conclusion 137
Appendices 138
Appendices 1: Activities in a fair trade market (the case of bananas) 138
Appendices 2: A banana brand «oké » in a fair trade market 140
Appendices 3: Distribution of the Agrofair’s partners and products in the world 140
Bibliography 141
Hypotheses For Study 219
Economic Development Hypothesis 220
Abstract 270
The Competitive Environment 272
Perception and Industry Paradigm 273
Blu-ray DVD Decline – An Inevitable Surprise? 277
The Case of Innovation by Technology and Market Linkages 281
Summary 285
The Ideal Final Result and Further Consequences 287
Porter, M.E. 1998. Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press. 292
Porter, M.E. 1987. From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy. Boston: Harvard Business Review. 292
Prensky, M. 2001. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. MCB University Press 9:(5). 1-6, Oktober 2001. 292
Rémy, E. 2009. Marketing in a Hypermodern Society. Proceedings of the 4th International Research Days on Marketing Communications, Aarhus 26-27 March, 2009. Aarhus: Aarhus Business School, University of Aarhus. 292
RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America). 2009. RIAA Year End Shipment Statistics. [Online]. Available: http://www.riaa.com/keystatistics.php [21 July 2010] 292
RIAA (Recording Industry Association of America). 2008. Year-end Shipment Statistics. [Online]. Available: http://www.riaa.com/keystatistics.php [24 May 2009] 292
Rodin, R. 1999. Free, Perfect, and Now: Connecting to the Three Insatiable Customer Demands. New York: Simon & Schuster. 292
Sabbagh, D. 21 February 2008. How the Blu-ray war was won: Sony outspent, outsold Toshiba. [Online]. Available: http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/media/article3405959.ece [09 August 2010] 292
Data and Methods 298
Conclusion 305
Blum, D. E. (2008, May 1). Vermont poised to Recognize Businesses That Are Created to offer Social Benefits. Chronicle of Philanthropy 20 (14), 21. 339
Abstract 416
Initial Expectations 417
The Decision Making Process 418
Overview of the development DTV Standards 419
ISDB: The Japanese Standard 419
ATSC: The U.S. Standard 419
DVB: The European Standard 420
DMB: The Chinese Standard 420
Status of DTV Standards Adoption 420
Methods 421
Brazil 422
Colombia 423
Chile 424
8. Development of common decision factors 425
Conclusions and Discussion 425
References 428